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秒速赛车开奖结果: 如何管制区块链?这取决于在哪个国家

极速飞艇开奖记录 www.23y3y.cn 陈注伶 2018年07月04日

本文分类列出了全球主要的一些国家在区块链监管上的做法。

尽管作为比特币、以太坊等主流加密货币的底层机制,区块链在国际上声名不佳,但这项技术拥有巨大的积极潜力:在全球范围内实现金融交易的去中心化和流线化。不幸的是,监管机构仍然在努力追赶这个不断变化的系统的脚步,许多人并不认为区块链在国际商业生态系统的未来中占有一席之地。

下文分类列出了全球主要的一些国家在区块链监管上的做法:

欧盟

欧盟坚定地?;な菀?,推行了严格的监管措施,对区块链产生了明显影响。5月25日生效的《全面数据?;しü妗罚℅eneral Data Protection Regulation)试图统一欧盟内的数据隐私规定,并特别指出欧盟公民在网上“有权利被遗忘”。

对许多区块链公司而言,这一权利可能与技术给用户提供的不可更改性和去中心化相冲突。新的《全面数据?;しü妗繁曜家劳杏诘赖禄。号访说墓裼涤兄渌鞘莸幕救ɡ?。因此,区块链公司有责任确保自身足以达到欧盟设立的数据所有权门槛。

东亚

相反的是,东亚国家最近才开始采取“先经营,后管制”的做法,即政府机构不加限制地允许区块链公司运营。不过随着加密货币去年发展势头迅猛,东亚国家也开始对区块链进行更加严格的监管审查。

尽管中国曾被看作加密货币的国际避难所,但2017年情况突变,中国人民银行(People’s Bank of China)禁止了国内的加密货币首次公开募股(ICO),这个信号明确表示他们无法接受当前形式的加密货币交易。韩国紧随其后,表示尽管他们鼓励区块链技术在国内发展,但在可预见的未来内都将在国内禁止加密货币首次公开募股。

韩国的区块链社区近年来蓬勃发展。尽管政府对区块链技术的看法比较正面,但却并未在法律和监管方面定义募集和交易加密货币的行为,这导致韩国市场存在不确定性。此外,加密货币首次公开募股在可预见的未来内也遭到了禁止。

日本是全世界首批承认比特币为货币、为寻求法律下正式分类的公司颁布加密货币交易所许可的国家之一。与此同时,日本的监管机构对加密货币的评定仅限于比特币,至今也没有做好接受其他区块链相关企业的准备。接下来会怎么样,只能拭目以待。

美国

另一方面,美国的政府机构采用了“先管制,后经营”的方法,压倒性的怀疑促使监管方限制了主流区块链项目对加密货币的使用。美国监管方对该领域的未来进行了一些极具争议的监管讨论,尤其是在安全相关的话题上。美国证券交易委员会(U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission)要求加密货币在政府的管辖范围内被视为“资产”,这打消了许多大型国际加密货币公司在美国经营的想法。

前行

加密货币和区块链领域在监管上的状态引发了各种观点的交锋,许多国家不知所措,不知道采用哪种管理方式。由于前途不明,统一的区块链和加密货币管理框架对于让这些令人激动的技术发挥全部潜力至关重要。

这一进程已经拉开了帷幕。今年3月,G20的成员国汇聚一堂,讨论加密货币在国际舞台上的未来。尽管没有达成共识,但成员国承认这个行业有着独特的价值主张,并承诺在7月之前发布一份正式倡议。这预计将成为迄今为止首批全球承认的决议之一,很有可能为政府和监管审查机构订立未来几年的标准。

区块链会成为我们追求商业生态系统发展过程中的下一个前沿领域。通过为传统的交易提供不可更改性和去中心化,我们可以确保安全再也不必以牺牲效率为代价,反之亦然。

如今,在该领域的发展方向上,监管方和行业专家的摩擦似乎大于共识。然而在不久的将来,随着国际上开始认可区块链是日益全球化的世界中帮助公司连点成线的必要技术,这一切都会改变。(财富中文网)

注:作者陈注伶是加密货币Aelf的联合创始人。

译者:严匡正

While blockchain has earned international notoriety for being the mechanism underpinning major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, blockchain technology has immense positive potential: to decentralize and streamline financial transactions on a global scale. Unfortunately, regulatory agencies are still catching up to an ever-changing system, and many are in a state of disagreement about where blockchain fits into the future of the international commercial ecosystem.

Here’s a breakdown of how major global actors are approaching the regulation of blockchain:

European Union

The EU has taken a firm stance on data privacy, implementing stringent regulations that have notable implications for blockchain. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect on May 25, seeks to harmonize data privacy efforts across the union, mandating, in particular, that EU citizens have a “right to be forgotten” online.

For many blockchain companies, this right may contradict the immutability and decentralization that the technology provides its users. The new GDPR standards rest upon the moral foundation that EU citizens should have the fundamental right to control their data. The onus, therefore, will fall on blockchain companies to ensure that the EU threshold for data ownership is met sufficiently.

East Asia

East Asian countries, by contrast, have until recently taken a “business first, regulation later” approach, in which government agencies have allowed blockchain companies to operate without restrictions. But as cryptocurrencies exploded last year, East Asian nations began to subject blockchain to more significant regulatory scrutiny.

While China was once considered to be an international refuge for cryptocurrencies, this changed abruptly in 2017 when the People’s Bank of China banned initial coin offerings (ICOs) in the country, sending a clear signal that cryptocurrency exchanges in their present form would not be tolerated. South Korea followed suit, stating that while blockchain technology was generally encouraged within its borders, domestic ICOs were banned for the foreseeable future.

South Korea’s blockchain community has flourished in recent years. While the government views blockchain technology favorably, it has yet to define its stance on the legal and regulatory aspects of funding and trading cryptocurrencies—leaving the South Korean market uncertain. In addition, domestic ICOs have been banned for the foreseeable future.

Japan was one of the first countries in the world to recognize Bitcoin as a currency and to issue cryptocurrency exchange licenses to businesses seeking formal classifications under the law. At the same time, Japanese regulatory bodies have restricted their assessment of cryptocurrencies to Bitcoin solely, and are not ready to embrace other blockchain-powered businesses as of now. Only time will tell how this plays out.

United States

U.S. government agencies, on the other hand, have taken a “regulation first, business later” approach, in which overwhelming skepticism has prompted regulators to restrict the potential mainstream applications of blockchain programs utilizing cryptocurrency. U.S. regulatory agencies have had some of the most controversial regulatory discussions about the future of the space, especially with regard to security-related topics. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has mandated that cryptocurrencies will be considered “assets” under governmental purview, deterring many major international crypto-companies from wanting to operate in America.

Moving forward

The current state of regulation in the cryptocurrency and blockchain space has attracted a melting pot of perspectives that have left many perplexed as to which governance structure to follow. With an uncertain road ahead, a unified regulatory framework for blockchain and cryptocurrency will be crucial to utilizing these exciting technologies to their full potential.

This has already begun. In March, members of the G20 convened to discuss the future of cryptocurrencies on the international stage. While no consensus was reached, members acknowledged the unique value proposition of the industry, and pledged to publish a formal proposal by July. This is anticipated to be one of the first globally recognized resolutions to date, and will likely set the standard for government and regulatory scrutiny for years to come.

In the pursuit of advancement in our commercial ecosystem, blockchain is the next frontier. By providing immutability and decentralization to traditional exchanges, we can ensure that security will never again come at the expense of efficiency, and vice-versa.

At present, it may seem as if there is more friction than unity between regulatory bodies and industry experts about how the space should develop. However, in the very near future, this is all expected to change, as blockchain becomes internationally recognized as an essential technology for companies seeking to connect the dots in an increasingly globalized world.

Zhuling Chen is the co-founder of aelf.

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